A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power in one circuit to a different one without changing frequency. This is a very basic meaning of transformer. While there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is actually a static device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works around the principle of mutual induction.
If we would like to understand the history of transformer we have now return long inside the 1880s. Around 50 years before that in 1830 property of induction which is the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved causing more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the big capacity of transformer manufacturers in all the different several KVA, MVA came into existence. During 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In the early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and in many cases higher KV class transformers were manufactured in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost-effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power may be transmitted for the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted contributes to greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in the event the voltage measure of an electric power is increased, the actual of the power is reduced which causes decrease in ohmic or I2R losses inside the system, reduction in cross sectional portion of the conductor i.e. reduction in capital expense of the machine and it likewise improves the voltage regulation of the system. As a result of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is accomplished by boost transformer with the sending side of your power system network. Simply because this high voltage power is probably not distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped as a result of the preferred level on the receiving end with the aid of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a vital role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are usually used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It is affordable to use auto transformer where ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is under 2. Again a single unit three phase transformer is much more affordable than the usual bank of three power transformer in a three phase system. But just one three phase transformer unit is a bit challenging to transport and need to be pulled from service entirely if one of several phase winding breaks down.
Kinds of Transformer
Transformers may be categorized differently, depending upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The kinds of transformer are as follows,
Step Up Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally used for stepping all around the voltage measure of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is normally used in three phase power system as it is economical than later. But when size matters, it is actually preferable to utilize a bank of three single phase transformer because it is easier to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are often found in transmission network for stepping down or up the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps across the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It provides good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs every day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are utilized to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which is often measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It can be economical to make use of later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is below 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers created for installing at indoor are furnace transformer cost.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer they have two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular fit with a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are put for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It has a central limb as well as two outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are put about the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is present.
Berry type transformer: The core looks like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks are used for housing this particular transformer with transformer oil filled inside.